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Batak custom recognizes the rules for giving ulos which are quite strict and varied. Some of these rules include:
Ulos must be given during traditional events such as weddings, traditional ceremonies, or when guests come to the house.
Ulos must be given during traditional ceremonies, such as when someone becomes a traditional teacher or when someone becomes a tribal leader.
Ulos must be given when guests come to the house. Guests will be given ulos as a sign of honor and a symbol of friendship.
Ulos must be given at the time of the wedding. Ulos will be given to couples who are getting married as a sign of honor and a symbol of friendship.
Ulos must be given during other traditional events such as when guests come to the house, when someone becomes a traditional teacher or when someone becomes a tribal leader.
The ulos pattern given must be in accordance with one’s social and religious status.
Giving ulos must be done in the right and polite manner according to Batak custom.
The ulos given must be of good quality and must not be damaged.
Giving ulos in Batak custom is very important and respected, because ulos is considered a symbol of friendship, honor and togetherness.
RULES REGARDING THE GIVING OF ULOS
As we explained earlier, the ulos has a very high value in the traditional Batak ceremony. It is impossible for us to talk about Batak culture without talking about ulos. Ulos, hiou, olis, abit godang or uis are all the identities of the Batak people.
In the Toba, Simalungun and Tanah Karo areas, in principle, it is the Hula-hula who gives the parboru (in marriage). Meanwhile, in the Pakpak/Dairi and South Tapanuli areas, it was the boru who gave the ulos to the mora or kula kula.
This specific difference does not mean reducing the value and meaning of an ulos in traditional ceremonies. In the Toba region, for example, those who have the right to give ulos are:
Hula Hula Parties (in-law, Bones, Bones Bona, Bona ni ari and Bone rorobot).
Dongan Tubu (Father, father’s brother, grandfather and bride’s brother in a higher position in the family order).
Pariban parties (in higher order in the order of kinship).
As for the ale-ale (colleagues) that we often see giving ulos, it is actually beyond Dalihan Natolu’s mockery. Giving ale-ale, whatever it is, should be given in the form of a gift (wrapped).
From the description above it is clear that those who have the right to give ulos are those who have a higher position (in family order) than the recipient of the ulos.
In a wedding ceremony, for example, the order of giving u is as follows:
Initially, the one who gave the ulos was the bride’s parents.
Just followed by the bones of the bride, including robot bones.
Then follows the dongan sabutuha party from the bride’s parents which in this case is called paidua (pamarai).
Then followed by pariban namely boru hula-hula (bride’s parents).
The last thing is the bridegroom’s bones, after which he is given the portion of the sinamot that parboru receives from the children, of the agreed amount, 2/3 of the boru and 1/3 of the children.
This part is conveyed by the bride’s parents to the child’s bones (groom). This is what is called “tintin marangkup”.
PROCEDURES FOR GIVING ULOS
According to Batak customary procedures, each person will receive a minimum of 3 kinds of ulos from birth to the end of his life. This ulos is called ulos na marsintuhu which can be classified as ulos ni tondi, according to the philosophy of Dalihan Natolu.
These three are the first received when he was just born. Now it is known as ulos parompa. Formerly known as ulos mangalo alo tondi.
The second is received when he enters the threshold of a new life (marriage) which is received in the form of ulos hela. Previously it was called ulos marjabu for the bride and groom (male and female).
The third is the ulos he received when he left the mortal world (ulos saput). The position of a deceased person determines the type of ulos he receives as a saput, depending on when he died.
If a person dies at a young age or dies without leaving offspring (matehadiaranna), he is given an ulos called “ulos par olang-olangan”.
If he dies and leaves behind small children (sapsap mardum), if a man is called “matipul ulu”, if a woman is called “marompas tataring” then she is given an ulos saput.
If she dies sari/saur matua, then she gets “ulos panggabei” which is received from all hula, both her own hula, child hula, and grandson’s hula. Usually this ulos panggabei is accepted by all of its descendants. It is at times like these that the ulos “JUGIA” runs. For the record: then according to its name “Ulos na so ra pipot” Jugia can only be given to parents whose descendants have not died (martilahu matua).
I. WHEN THE CHILD WAS BORN
When the child is born, there are two things that need attention. First, whether the child born is the eldest child or not. And secondly, is the child the eldest child of an eldest child in a family.
In the first punt, if the one born is the eldest child of a father who is not the firstborn, then the only ones who are able to goar beside the child are the parents (mar amani…).
On the other hand, if the child is the eldest child of an eldest child in a family, those who are able to go on the side of the child are also the father and grandfather (mar ama ni… and ompuni…).
It is necessary to pay attention to the title of Ompu… If the title has an infix si… then the title is obtained from the eldest daughter (Ompung Bao).
Whereas if he doesn’t get the prefix si… then the Ompu title he receives comes from the eldest son (Ompung Suhut).
For the first punt, the hula-hula only provided 2 ulos, namely the ulos parompa for the child and the ulos pargomgom mampe goar for the father. For the child as a parompa, ulos mangiring can be given and for the father, ulos suri suri ganjang or sito luntuho can be given.
For the second punt, hula hula must provide 3 ulos, namely ulos parompa for children, ulos par gomgom for fathers and ulos bulang bulang for ompung.
Along with giving ulos these words are often uttered as follows:
“Ucok (Tatap). Realize nunga pinuka goarmu. Sai anggiat ma goar mi goar marsarak, goar na mura jou jou on, hipas hipas ho mamboan. Dison pasahaton nami ma tu ho ulos pangiring, asa mangiring anak dohot boru ho sian on tu joloan on. Horas mom”.
If the mampe goar ulos event is given, it must be of the Maratur Star type. But if it’s just giving ulos parompa you can ulos mangiring.
At hamu hela/boru nami. Starting to realize on marbonsir naung pinungka goar ni need new clothes, realize start to be able to goar hamu mar amani dohot mar ina ni….Dison pasahaton nami ma tu hamu ulos suri suri ganjang, hope your age is long mamboan goar panggoari ni pahompu i. Hata ni like ma dohonon nami:
“Tubu ma hariara, on top of the torna on the kidney, lehet ma i borotan ni horbo si opat pusoran. Great goar si jou jou on ma i, hipas jala mariang, goar na mura jouon, dirgak bohi mamboan.”
“Grandparents: At hamu Lae dohot ito. Dibagasan sa darion was helped by jabu na marsangap na martua on, ima jabu sigomgom pangisi na on marlas ni roha hita, ala nunga jumpang na ni luluan, tarida na jinalahan. Starting to realize on can goar do hamu Lae, Ito, mar Ompuni… ala marbonsir sian goar ni pahompunta na ta pungka realizes on. Hupasahat hami ma tu hamu ulos yeast-alive songon patuduhon balga ni roha nami. Hata ni is like dohenan nami in hamu:
Andor hadumpang ma togu togu ni lombu, Saur matua ma hamu Lae Ito, mambo an goar i huhut accompanied by pahompu.
That, among other things, is the procedure and regarding the adage petitih usually consists of 3 pieces.
II. AT THE TIME OF MARRIAGE
In the marriage ceremony, the hula hula must provide ulos si tot ni pansa, namely:
Ulos marjabu (hela dohot boru).
Ulos pansamot/pargomgom for the groom’s parents.
Ulos pamarai is given to the older brother of the groom or father’s sibling.
Ulos Simolohon is given to the groom’s iboto or if no one has married to his father’s iboto.
As for ulos lid ni ampang, boru in ampuan will accept it only if the marriage is carried out at the place of the woman’s family (dialapjual). If the marriage is carried out at the place of the man’s family (placed for sale), ulos cover ni ampang is not given.
We often see many ulos given to the bride and groom by close relatives. In the past, this ulos was called yeast ni sinamot. Usually those who get the yeast ni sinamot (receive a portion of the sinamot) give ulos in return. In the Batak example it is called:
“malo manapol – ingkon mananggal”
Umpasa means that the Batak people are not dead due to adat. However, the existence of the term Pinudun sign which was originally intended to shorten the time, resulted in the blurring of who received the golo goli from yeast ni sinamot. This results in the emergence of an inappropriate position (mar goli-goli) so that what is appropriate can be replaced by a general invitation (ale-ale). Under the pretext of the term ulos holong, ulos is also given to the bride and groom. Even though the term ulos holong is outside the Dalihan Natolu version.
Binanga ni Sihombing ma, binongkak in Tarabunga, Tu studio ma amporik, tu jalan ma satua, sai sinur mana pinahan, gabe na ni u1a.
After being ulosi, a little rice (boras si pir ni tondi) is then picked up and sprinkled publicly by saying “HORAS” three times.
Then follows the giving of ulos to the groom’s parents (his representatives). The following umpasa are often delivered along with giving ulos:
“Jongjong do hami dison lae, ito, pasahathon sada u1os na margoar ulos pansamot tu hamu siala naung hujalo hami sinamotmu, marbonsir diulaonta sada rion. Jala laos on ma ito, lae ulos pargomgom asa starts to realize, gomgomonmu ma your son dohot your Pargomaen”.
Songon nidok ni umpasa ma:
“Manginsir ma sidohar, in uma ni Palipi, that’s the name hamu marpinompar, your net bag is sitorop pangisi. Andor hudumpang ma togu togu ni lombu, sai saur matua ma hamu, Lae-ito, huhut mangirding the pahompu accompaniment.
Songon panutup ito :
Sahat sahat ni solu ma sahat tu bontean, nunga saut means dohot tahinta, sai sahat ma tu parhorasan, sahat panggabean.
After that, the giving of ulos (si tot ni pansa) to pamarai and simolohon took place. giving ulos is usually represented by temperature paidua.
After the other ulos ulos have run, the closing is the gift of an ulos from a male bone called ulos panggabei. This was carried out after the “tintin marangkup” presentation ceremony.
III. ULOS AT DEATH CEREMONY
The third and last ulos given to someone is the one he received when he died. A person’s death rate determines the type of ulos he can accept. If a person dies young (mate hadiaranna), the ulos he receives is an ulos called “parolang olangan” and is usually of the parompa type. If someone dies after starting a family (matipul ulu, marompas tataring) then he is given an ulos saput and those who remain (balu, a widow) are given an ulos tujung. Meanwhile, if a person dies sari/saur matua, he will be given a “panggabei” ulos.
Specifically regarding the ulos Saput and tujung it is necessary to emphasize the gift. According to the parents, it was the Bones who gave the saput as proof that the bones still had something to do with berenya. While the ulos tujung are given by the Hula-Hula. It is important not to repeat the wrong gift.
Procedure for Giving:
If the deceased is a child (not yet married), then there is no ceremony for giving saput. If the person who died was a married person, after the hula hula received/heard the news about this, an ulos was provided for the tujung and the Tulang provided a saput ulos.
When giving handkerchiefs from Bones:
“Dison bere hupasahat hami dope sada ulos tu songon sauté your flesh, ulos parpudi laho mnopot sambulom. Songon the sign do on na dohot hami mar habot ni roha in halalaom. Pabulus roham, your toppot is your rap dohot God, your patulus pardalan.”
Then the Hula Hula gave the tip:
“Sadarion (ito, hela) pasahaton nami do tuho ulos tujung. Beha bahenon (ito, hela), nunga songoni huroha your share, your siubeon marbahir, sambor nipim mabalu ho. Alani i duk ma panailim marnida halak, patoru ma kirim marningot God. Songon nidok is like dohonon nami”:
Hotang binebe bebe, hotang pinulos-pulos, Unang iba mandele, ai godang do tudos-tudos.
After a few days later, it was continued with the event of uncovering the tujung which was carried out by the Hula Hula. Regarding the time depends on the agreement of both parties.
Hula-hula provide rice on a plate, clean water to wash her face from a glass of water. The event was held in the morning (parnangkok ni mata ni ari). These words accompanied the event:
“Sadarion said nami ma tujung on sian simanjujungmu. Asa said na ari matiur, said silas ni roha tu hamu in joloanon, Husuapi ma (dainang/helangku) asa perforated sude ilu ilum, na mambahen golap panailim”.
“Sai bagot na ma dungdung ma tu pilo-pilo na marajar, sai mago ma na lungun tu joloanon, ro ma na jagar.
Dison muse nek sitio-tio inum (dainang, laengku) ma on, sai tio ma panggabean, tio parhorasan di hamu tu joloan on. Huhut dison boras si pir ni tondi, sai pir ma nang tondim :
Martantan ma baringin, marurat jabi jabi, horas ma tondi madinding, tumpakon ni Mulajadi.
The rice is then picked up and sprinkled over the head three times. Usually all the children left behind by the deceased wash their faces and sprinkle rice on their heads.
In the past, the ulos giver was usually given piso piso as a customary fence. Now it is often replaced with money.
GIVE ULOS PANGGABEI
If a parent who is sari/saur matua dies, then all hula hula will give ulos called ulos panggabei. And usually this ulos is no longer given to the deceased but to all their descendants (children, pahompu and great-grandchildren).
The following words accompany the ulos gift:
“In hamu pomparan ni Lae nami (Amang boru) on. In son hupasahat hami tu hamu, sada ulos panggabei. Ulos on ulos panggabei, Sai mangulosi panggabean ma on, mangulosi parhorason, mangulosi meat do hot tondimu hamu sude pomparan ni Lae (amang boru) on. Horas ma dihita sude…”
Usually the number of ulos is in the order of hula hula starting from hula hula, bone bona, bona niari and all hula hula hula children and hula hula grandsons.
Death events for parents like this take a very long time and cost a lot.